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The highly polymorphic D1S80 locus has no known genetic function. However, this variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) locus has been highly valuable in forensic identification. In this study we report the allele and genotype frequencies of five African populations (Benin, Cam- eroon, Egypt, Kenya, and Rwanda), which can be used as databases to help characterize populations and identify individuals. The allele frequencies were used to infer genetic associations through phylogenetic, principal com- ponent, and G test statistical analyses. Compliance with Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium expectations was determined as were FST estimates, theta p val- ues, and power of discrimination assessment for each population. Our analy- ses of 28 additional populations demonstrate that the D1S80 locus alone can be used to discriminate geographic and ethnic groups. We have generated databases useful for human identification and phylogenetic studies.