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The angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (ACE) insertion/dele- tion polymorphism was determined in 211 Mexican healthy individuals be- longing to different Mexican ethnic groups (98 Mestizos, 64 Teenek, and 49 Nahuas). ACE polymorphism differed among Mexicans with a high frequen- cy of the D allele and the D/D genotype in Mexican Mestizos. The D/D geno- type was absent in Teenek and present in only one Nahua individual (2.0%). When comparisons were made, we observed that Caucasian, African, and Asian populations presented the highest frequencies of the D allele, whereas Amerindian (Teenek and Pima) and Australian Aboriginals showed the high- est frequencies of the I allele. The distribution of I/D genotype was heteroge- neous in all populations: Australian Aboriginals presented the lowest fre- quency (4.9%), whereas Nahuas presented the highest (73.4%). The present study shows the frequencies of a polymorphism not analyzed previously in Mexican populations and establishes that this polymorphism distinguishes the Amerindian populations of other groups. On the other hand, since ACE alleles have been associated with genetic susceptibility to developing cardio- vascular diseases and hypertension, knowledge of the distribution of these al- leles could help to define the true significance of ACE polymorphism as a ge- netic susceptibility marker in the Amerindian populations.