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In this study we analyze 18 classical polymorphisms (ABO, Rh, MNSs, Lewis, P, Duffy, Kell, ADA, ESD, PGM1, PGD, AK1, ACP1, GLO1, HP, GC, TF, and PI) in over 2000 autochthonous individuals from 14 natural districts in three provinces of the Basque Country (Alava, Guipuzcoa, and Biscay). Heterogeneity analysis via the χ2 test and a calculation of FST indicate that there is significant genetic heterogeneity between the Basque districts. The R matrix informs us that this heterogeneity is not significantly concentrated in a single district or in the districts of a single province, but is rather distributed among several districts belonging to the three provinces analyzed. We undertake to assess the influence of various historical, geographical, and cultural factors on the genetic structure of the Basque population. Analysis suggests that allele distribution is geographically patterned in the Basque Country. The gradient distributions observed in the case of some alleles (ABO*O, RH*cDE, RH*cde, MNS*MS, and ACP1*C) on the basis of Moran’s autocorrelation coefficient I, along with the influence of the two main travel routes through the Basque Country (western route through Bilbao and eastern route through Vitoria), suggest that the gene flow tends toward the coast. As regards other factors considered (administrative division, repopulation processes, linguistic heterogeneity, and north vs. south cultural heterogeneity), we detected only a certain influence exerted by an old tribal differentiation (2000 b.p.), which would diminish with the passage of time.