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Ten population samples from different geographic origins were tested serologically for the AG polymorphism of human b-lipoproteins. Their haplotype frequencies were used with previously published data to perform a wide analysis of AG genetic differentiations throughout the world. Coancestry coefficients were computed from weighted FSTs among populations by using a matrix of molecular distances among AG haplotypes, which is here determined on the basis of DNA studies. Coancestry coefficients derived from unweighted FSTs and more classical Prevosti distances were computed on the same data and used for a comparison. In all cases a highly significant correlation was found between genetics and geography on a worldwide scale, while the significance of the correlation with linguistics differed. A test of significance of the pairwise FSTs among populations also gave different results depending on whether the molecular distance matrix among AG haplotypes was included. Globally, this study shows that in spite of being highly significantly correlated to each other, different genetic distance measures can lead to different interpretations of the same data set. Moreover, the elucidation of the molecular models related to the presently known serological polymorphisms may represent an additional tool for analyzing such polymorphisms in human population genetics studies.