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Duffy genotypes were studied in Ashkenazi and non-Ashkenazi groups in Israel. The prevalence of the genotypes for the known polymorphic FY*A, FY*B, and FY*BGATA- alleles was similar in the two groups. The recently described FY*BG298A and FY*BC265T alleles were also found to be polymorphic. FY*BG298A was significantly more prevalent in the non-Ashkenazi group than in the Ashkenazi group (in 20% and 10% of FY*B, respectively). FY*BC265T, which markedly diminishes the expression of Fyb antigen, was found in 3.5% of FY*B alleles, but only together with FY*BG298A, consistent with previous suggestions that FY*BC265T occurred in the FY*BG298A allele. No difference in Duffy genotype distribution was found between schizophrenic and control groups. Duffy antigens are receptors for chemokines and bind Plasmodium vivax. Study of Duffy genotypes in additional populations might help in elucidating the possible functional significance of Duffy allele polymorphism.