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The effects of climate and altitude on casual blood pressure are examined from the perspectives of initial exposure, acclimatization, long-term residence, and birthplace. Hot arid and hot humid climates seem to have little effect on blood pressure, although a slight reduction may be found in some naturally acclimatized groups. Exposure of the total body to mild cold likewise has little apparent effect. Local exposure of the extremities to severe cold occasions significant increases in blood pressure during exposure but not at other times. Acclimatization reduces but does not eliminate that response. The effects of altitude on blood pressure are variable. There is initial hypertension, followed by gradual normalization. After years of residence at high altitude blood pressure may actually be lower than that observed among residents at sea level.