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The aim of this study is to analyze short tandem repeat (STR) variation using data on 9 loci (D3S1358, VWA, FGA, THOl, TPOX, CSF1PO, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820) from the subpopulations of 6 villages on the island of Hvar, Croatia. The STR data help us to analyze the genetic structure of Hvar. The analysis of STR data in this study indicated genetic homogeneity among the village subpopulations on Hvar and the lack of the so-called east-west dichotomy, which had been indicated by some previous multidisciplinary anthropological studies. The observed value of GST (0.030) is most probably a consequence of high STR mutation rates, which produce a high level of within-group (village) diversity relative to total diversity of the population. The validity of STR markers in assessing genetic structure of small populations and especially in determining the relationships among closely related and reproductively isolated groups remains to be further evaluated.