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We have investigated the clinical, hematological, and molecular genetic characteristics of sickle cell anemia patients from 6 populations of Andhra Pradesh, South India. Of 72 sickle cell chromosomes (HBB*S) 60 belong to characteristic Arab-Indian haplotypes, 6 to variant Arab-Indian haplotypes, 1 to a Bantu haplotype, 2 to a Cameroon haplotype, and 3 to rare haplotypes. This is the first report of a Bantu haplotype in an Indian population. Some information on haplotype characteristics of normal chromosomes (HBB*A) is also presented. The average hemoglobin level was 7.3 g% and mean fetal hemoglobin (HbF) level was 12.6%. The higher HbF levels corroborate earlier observations in sickle cell homozygotes from India. Clinical investigations have revealed splenomegaly and painful crises as the most common features in these patients.