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Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by at least 750 different mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. The frequency of the most common mutation (DF508) in Brazilian patients of European origin is 47%. To determine the frequency of 4 other common CF mutations (G542X, G551D, R553X, and N1303K) in Brazilian patients of European origin, we used direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of DNA obtained from dried blood spots on Guthrie cards. The DNA came from 247 non-DF508 chromosomes from 172 Brazilian CF patients ascertained from 5 different states of Brazil. The results show that the 4 mutations account for 17% of the non-DF508 alleles and only 9% of the total number of Brazilian CF alleles. Overall, the frequency of each mutation is different from northern European and North American populations but similar to southern European populations, mainly the Italian and Spanish populations. When Brazilian patients of European origin are grouped according to state of birth, the frequencies of the mutations are significantly different between southern and southeastern states of Brazil. Therefore there are serious implications for risk assessment of DNAbased tests in heterogeneous populations such as Brazilians. Further studies are needed to identify the remaining 44% of CF mutations for the different populations and regions of Brazil.