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Anatolia, because of its geographic position and its use as an area of settlement, was also a land of transit that accommodated a succession of populations. The last important invasion occurred in the Middle Ages with the arrival of the Turks, an Altaic-speaking nomadic population descended from the Oguz tribes and originating in Mongolia. Although the Turks imposed their culture, their genetic contribution seems to have been modest. To validate this hypothesis, we studied the genetic structure of the Turkish population by examining 15 genetic markers in a sample of 93 subjects. The allele frequencies observed were HP*1 = 0.240; GL01*1 = 0.344, ESD*2 = 0.134, GC*1S = 0.613, GC*1F = 0.129, PGM1*2S = 0.322, PGM1*2F = 0.041, PGM1*1F = 0.027, F13B*1 = 0.762, F13B*2 = 0.101, ORMl*S = 0.327, AHSG*2 = 0.181, C6*B = 0.239, C7*l = 0.983, APOC2* 1 = 1.0, APOE*3 = 0.868,APOE*2 = 0.063, BF*F = 0.258, BF*S07 = 0.017, BF*SQ0 = 0.011, C4A*Q0 = 0.145, C4A*2 = 0.070, C4A*5 = 0.012, C4A*6 = 0.023, C4B*Q0 = 0.101, C4B*2 = 0.048, C4B*3 = 0.005, and C4B*11 = 0.005. The present Turkish population was compared to other European, Middle Eastern, and North African populations by means of correspondence analysis. Turks cluster with Turkomans, who share the ancient Turks’ derivation from the Oguz tribe. Moreover, Turks clearly belong to European groups and resemble the populations of neighboring countries. Therefore the present data support the hypothesis that the ancient Turkish tribes, who started to enter Anatolia 1000 years ago, contributed little to the gene pool of the preexisting Anatolian populations. Alternatively, if the genetic structure of the invading Turks resembled that of the ancient Anatolians, it will be impossible to find traces of their admixture with the autochthonous inhabitants of Anatolia. However, further analysis of other samples from Turkey and from populations living in the homelands of the Turkish tribes, namely, the eastern area of the Caspian Sea and Mongolia, is needed.