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One anonymous reviewer and two other reviewers who waived anonymity provided meaningful insights that significantly improved this manuscript. Financial support for this research came from the Direction General de Investigation Cientffico Tecnica (Spain) through projects PB92-0722 and PB95-0267-C02-01, from Human Capital and Mobility through contracts ERCHRXCT92-0032 and ERBCHRX-CT920090, and from Grup de Recerca Consolidat through grants 95 SGR00205 and 96 SGR00041 (Comissionat per a Universitats i Recerca, Catalan Autonomous Government) awarded to Jaume Bertranpetit. Elena Bosch was awarded a Ph.D. fellowship (grant FI/96-1.153) from the Commisionat per a Universitats i Recerca (Catalan Autonomous Government). Anna Perez-Lezaun received a Ph.D. fellowship from the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science (grant FP93-38110903). Eva Mateu was granted a Ph.D. fellowship from the Institut de Salut Publica de Catalunya (grant ISP11/95), and David Comas received a Ph.D. fellowship from the Comissionat per Universitats i Recerca (Catalan Autonomous Government) (grant FI/93-1.151). Robin Rycroft (Servei d’Assessorament Linguistic, Universitat A study of the Chueta population has been carried out to establish the genetic relationships between the Chuetas and other Jewish and non-Jewish circum-Mediterranean populations and to identify which markers discriminate better between these populations. The analyses used were principal components analysis, factorial analysis of correspondences, and stepwise discriminant analysis. The results indicate that most of the Jewish communities resemble each other and other Middle Eastern populations, because of their common origin, but they also have affinities with their host peoples. The results also agree with those of most researchers in the importance of G6PD, FY, and MN as geographic markers and in the role of HP, GLOl, and Rh as indicators the Middle Eastern origin of the Jews but differ with respect to the geographic pattern of ABO. Moreover, the Jewish origin of the Chuetas remains evident in their genetic pool, although they resemble their neighboring populations more than other Jewish populations. Finally, HP, G6PD, ABO and Rh are the most important variables in determining the position of the Chuetas with respect to other Jewish and non-Jewish populations.Barcelona) helped with the English manuscript.