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The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) haplotypes of cystic fibrosis (CF) alleles vary between populations. To determine the distribution of two RFLPs (XV-2C and KM-19) that are tightly linked to the CF locus, we analyzed a white sample from five different states of Brazil. The haplotypes of 314 CF- and 237 non-CFbearing chromosomes were uniformly distributed over the five states. The XV-2C allele and haplotype frequencies and the degree of linkage disequilibrium were determined. These were similar to values previously reported in southern European countries but different from results reported for northern and central Europe and North America. In contrast, although KM-19 allele frequencies differed between Brazilian states and European and North American countries, these frequencies were similar to values reported in black Americans. A significant proportion of Brazilian CFbearing chromosomes had less common haplotypes, suggesting a heterogeneous distribution of CF gene mutations among Brazilians. Further studies are needed to identify the mutations affecting the Brazilian CF patients with various haplotypes.