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Isoelectric focusing was performed to analyze PGM1 polymorphism in six tribal, five caste, and five Muslim populations from the Indian subcontinent. Although a considerable range of allele frequencies was observed in certain caste and Muslim groups, the phenotypic distribution showed significant genetic heterogeneity only among the tribal groups. Discriminant analysis suggests that the PGM locus provides useful anthropogenetic information to differentiate the populations of the subcontinent in terms of their social structure. In the three population groups studied the variation in the heterozygosity levels suggests that the genetic diversity at the PGM1 locus maybe the result of the structure of various population groups.