Document Type



Comprehensive genetic studies in which the genetic structure of a population is considered against the background of ecological factors, including environmental and social variables, often supply valuable information for the solution of a number of problems in human biology, including reproductive compensation and inbreeding depression. In the first section of this paper we consider the incidence of genetic diseases in Japan in reference to other populations. Some of the genetic disorders found elsewhere do not occur or are of lower frequencies in Japan. On the other hand, a number of genetic diseases occur at higher than usual frequencies, leading to an incidence of genetic disease of the order of about 1 per 100 in newborn Japanese. We next review the studies of consanguinity in Japan and report evidence of very high levels, ranging from 8.6% to 58.0%, for villages during the early part of the twentieth century. The rates are declining rapidly for the country but, because of traditional social values, inbreeding rates remain significant in many small villages. In the final section we consider the probable trends in the frequency of inbreeding on a worldwide basis and point out that frequencies of certain genetic diseases are likely to remain high and even increase in some societies because of various socially prescribed mating patterns.