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The systematic study of human variation in China has only recently begun. Over the last decade extensive data have been collected that document the distribution of dermatoglyphic parameters, genetic markers, and anthropometric measurements in both majority Han and diverse minority populations of China. Here, I review recent syntheses of these studies made by Chinese investigators. These syntheses demonstrate the role that the study of human biological variation can play in reconstructing the population history of a vast and complex demographic unit such as China.