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Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and hemoglobin E (HbE) were studied among 708 malarial patients and control groups of Ao Nagas from the Mokokchung District of Nagaland in the extreme northeast of India. The data suggest that malaria is an important ecologic factor in maintaining the high frequency of G6PD deficiency and HbE among the Ao Nagas. Although migrations from adjoining populations that have a high frequency of both these traits could have contributed to the presence of these genes in the Ao Nagas, malaria also could be an essential determinant in maintaining the current high frequency in present-day Ao Nagas.