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The distribution of HLA class I and class II determinants was investigated in 48 patients with parenchymal neurocysticercosis and in 295 healthy controls of the same ethnic group, the Mexican Mestizo population. Two antigens, A28 and DQw2, showed significant differences in frequency between patients and controls; HLA A28 was increased (39.6% versus 15.6%; pc = 0.008), and HLA DQw2 was decreased (4.2% versus 31.7%; p c = 0.004) in neurocysticercosis patients. The relative risk for developing the disease in HLA A28 positive individuals was 3.55. Our results show that the major histocompatibility complex plays some role in the susceptibility and resistance to parenchymal neurocysticercosis, but the HLA genetic background of patients with neurocysticercosis does not seem to influence the severity of inflammatory response against cysticerci, nor is the disease sex related.