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In this study we investigate the incidence of twin births over a period of 16 years in a rural area of Bangladesh using data from the Demographic Surveillance System of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research. Over the study period twinning rates fluctuated between 7.8 and 11.2 per 1000 live births. The twinning rate was strongly correlated with maternal age; the rate for mothers over 35 years of age was about 3 times higher than for mothers younger than 20 years. The variation in twinning rate with maternal age is due to the variation in dizygotic twinning; the rate of monozygotic twinning is almost constant for all ages. Twinning rates were higher in the treatment area than in the comparison area after controlling for maternal age and parity. The rates were lower for monozygotic twinning and higher for dizygotic twinning in the treatment area than in the comparison area. Seasonality was observed for both twins and singletons, but the peak for twinning precedes that for singleton births by more than a month.