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Assessment of the population structure on the island of Hvar is based on the analysis of Mascot’s isolation by distance model. We have tested the fit of the model by regression analysis of different measures of similarity (genetic kinship) and distance [Hamming’s HSM distance for linguistic data; Mahalanobis’s D2 distances for anthropometric head and body dimensions, radiogrammetric dimensions of metacarpal bones, physiological (cardiorespiratory) traits, and quantitative dermatoglyphic properties of the digitopalmar complex; and Edwards’s E2 for frequencies of erythrocyte antigens]. Good fit of the model for linguistic and anthropometric data, which was demonstrated in previous studies on other eastern Adriatic populations, is confirmed. We compared parameters of the model with those already published for various populations in the eastern Adriatic and other parts of the world. We also evaluated the pattern of correlations between different measures of geographic, biological, and sociocultural distances through principal components analysis and interpreted the results within the context of microevolutionary theory and the population’s ethnohistorical background.