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Familial correlations were studied in a sample of 618 sibships from a western neighborhood of Jerusalem, whose height (H) and weight (W) were measured longitudinally at the same age, from birth to 3 years of age. Covariate adjustments were applied to correct for change in mean of H and W with the sex of child and age of mother and for the effect of origin, education, and socioeconomic status of the mother, parity, and calendar year at birth. The highest sibling correlations were observed at birth or 1 month later (r = 0.45-0.46). Pooled sibling correlations were lower 6 months later (r = 0.33; r = 0.26 for H and W, respectively) and tended to increase again 12-18 months after birth. A clear trend of decline in sib-sib correlation for H and W measured 3 and 12 months after birth with increased spacing between siblings was observed. Our data provide evidence for transient environmental factors as possible sources of the observed temporal variation in sibling correlation for height and weight.