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Adult Zapotecs are among the shortest Indians in Mexico. This study investigated whether reduced body size was an effect of genetic selection or a developmental effect of very poor nutrition and health. Fertility, offspring survival, and offspring prereproductive mortality were regressed on stature and weight of 205 multiparous adults (ages 20 to 72). The statistical analyses suggest that the exceptionally short stature of Zapotec Indians in this community is due to poor environmental conditions and not to genetic selection or adaptation.