David J. Kallen


From the beginning of the discipline, sociologists have used their knowledge to bring about change. This paper reviews the early antecedents of sociological practice, and then concentrates on three areas of practice as illustrative of practice. These are: studies in intergroup relations, before and after World War II; the studies of the morale of soldiers conducted during the Second World War; and the juvenile delinquency and poverty programs. After the end of World War II the focus of sociology shifted from the outside world to disciplinary concerns, and theoretical development was seen as incompatible with the use of sociology. Sociological practice has emerged as a social movement within sociology in response to the problems created by this shift in focus. This article ends with a description of the paradigm shift; a later article will discuss the recent emergence of sociological practice.

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